Realize that both the
sender and the receiver
the message they sent
is not the message
that was received.
Don’t communicate in
if required, transmit
the message in several
The two parts of
a message – the content and the message – must complement each other.
Be sure of the appropriateness of the entire message you send. The major
barriers to successful communication are message overload, and message
You must also realize that both the sender and the
receiver filter messages
and that the message they sent may not be the message that was received.
effective communication, avoid both too little and too much
Break complex messages into parts
and carefully explain the
relationship of the parts.
Pay attention to the messages being transmitted,
avoid premature evaluation of messages, and make use of a vocabulary common
to the individual whom the communication is being directed.
attention to psychological phenomena that can interfere with effective
Defensive reactions operate in everyone without the individual being
conscious of their operation.
Any communication from either a senior or a
subordinate that is considered threatening can evoke a defensive reaction.
To overcome barriers to and improve
begin the communication process with the formulation of a message that is
clear and concise;
don’t communicate in a haste, if required, transmit the message in several
use words that are part of the common vocabulary of the individual with whom
you communicate; recognize that different groups have different common
vocabularies and be prepared to change vocabularies as needed;
find a way to get your audience to explain what they think you said, discuss
differences until you hear a satisfactory version of the message you wanted
seek confirmation of understanding of the message you sent, ask the receiver
to repeat your message in words other that those originally used to transmit
be attentive to both verbal and non-verbal messages, eg.
body language, in both sending and receiving;
which questions to ask – it will help you get the right response;
for very important communications, keep a written record so that later
disputes regarding meaning can be resolved by consulting the original
I use "s/he" instead of "she or
he", "s/him" instead of "her or
him", "s/his" instead of "her or
his", "s/himself" instead of
"herself or himself" in my writings.